H2020 – Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions
The Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions (MSCA) provide grants for all stages of researchers' careers - be they doctoral candidates or highly experienced researchers - and encourage transnational, intersectoral and interdisciplinary mobility. The MSCA enable research-focused organisations (universities, research centres, and companies) to host talented foreign researchers and to create strategic partnerships with leading institutions worldwide.
The MSCA aim to equip researchers with the necessary skills and international experience for a successful career, either in the public or the private sector. The programme responds to the challenges sometimes faced by researchers, offering them attractive working conditions and the opportunity to move between academic and other settings.
The MSCA are open to all domains of research and innovation, from fundamental research to market take-up and innovation services. Research and innovation fields are chosen freely by the applicants (individuals and/or organisations) in a fully 'bottom-up' manner.
See more: http://ec.europa.eu/programmes/horizon2020/en/h2020-section/marie-sklodowska-curie-actions
European Research Council (ERC)
The ERC's mission is to encourage the highest quality research in Europe through competitive funding and to support investigator-driven frontier research across all fields, on the basis of scientific excellence. The ERC complements other funding activities in Europe such as those of the national research funding agencies, and is a flagship component of Horizon 2020, the European Union's Research Framework Programme for 2014 to 2020.
See more:http://erc.europa.eu/ .
Erasmus + is the new EU programme for Education, Training, Youth and Sport for 2014-2020. It provides opportunities to study, train, gain work experience and volunteer abroad. Furthermore it supports transnational partnerships among Education, Training and Youth institutions and organisations to foster cooperation and bridge the worlds of Education and work. See more: http://ec.europa.eu/programmes/erasmus-plus/index_en.htm
COST is a unique means for European researchers, engineers and scholars to jointly develop their own ideas and new initiatives across all fields of science and technology through trans-European networking of nationally funded research activities. See more: http://www.cost.eu/
Notwithstanding the first attempts to establish the local currency, the local bank-ing and payment system which date back to the early nineteenth century, it was only by the end of the 19th century and the first banking institutions were in-troduced in Albania with the branches of the Turkish Agrarian Bank and the Ottoman (Imperial) National Bank. The early twentieth century saw the rekin-dling of banking ideas in Albania based on the necessity to create a local bank. The Albanian Renaissance representatives went beyond the concept and idea and formulated the first bank projects. The Declaration of Albania’s Indepen-dence intensified interests not only on the part of Albanians, but also foreign-ers, in the establishment of banking institutions. Ismail Qemaili’s government made serious effort in that direction. A concessionary project was proposed to foreigners leading to the establishment of the first bank in Albania, albeit only short-lived.
Of particular interest was the project on the creation of Albania’s National Bank, which was conceived in 1922, when the Albanian government addressed the League of Nations with the request to consider the opportunities for foreign investment in Albania. The report concluded with a proposal submitted to the League to assign foreign experts to deal with bank building. This process was crowned with the relevant agreement and the launching of the first bank in 1925. The operations of this bank as of 1944 are of great interest.
In addition, the post-independence period until 1944, saw the establishment of several other banking institutions. Many of these institutions were controlled entirely by foreign capital, and a few were under joint local and foreign control.
The State Bank of Albania was the most important bank in the country in the period 1944-1991. It was both a state bank (central bank), and a commer-cial bank. Initially, the bank had the monopoly of lending and payments, but gradually, along the various stages of economic development, this monopoly was removed with some of its activities being transferred to the other banks, such as the Agricultural Bank. Deposition of population’s savings was the monopoly of the Insurance of Savings and Insurances. The Agricultural Bank had the monopoly of crediting agricultural enterprises and cooperatives. These institutions were linked among themselves by strong and conditional bonds. Population deposits placed with the Institute of Savings and Insurances were used by the Albanian State Bank and the Agricultural Bank for lending to their customers. The Institute of Savings and Insurances did not credit the economy, and the other two banks did not collect deposits from the population.
The system of commercial banking in Albania after 1991 was characterized by the gradual, but substantial introduction, of foreign banks from different European countries and beyond, starting with the banks that entered the Albanian market through various agreements, to the banks that were incorporated on the basis of licenses, as well as the banks established with Albanian private capital.
The main banking facts according may be clustered to three time periods, each marked by peculiar features: a) the creation of genuine commercial banks; b) de-velopment of banks after the collapse of the pyramid schemes and c) development of banks following the launch of privatization for state-owned banks.
On 22 April 1992, the Bank of Albania was established upon the approval of the Law No. 7559, “On the Bank of Albania”, which was revised later in accordance with western models and recommendations from international organizations. The Bank of Albania is the central bank of the Republic of Albania. Its functions have significantly evolved since its establishment, in line with economic, political and social developments.
For more information please refer to the below mentioned links:
Central Bank of Albania https://www.bankofalbania.org/
Credins Bank https://www.bankacredins.com/
BKT Bank http://www.bkt.com.al/
Tirana Bank http://www.tiranabank.al/
Procredit Bank https://www.procreditbank.com.al/
Intessa San Paolo Bank http://www.intesasanpaolobank.al/
Raiffeisen Bank https://www.raiffeisen.al/
ABI Bank http://www.abi.al/
NBG Bank https://www.nbgbank.al/
SocieteGenerale Bank https://www.societegenerale.al/
Alpha Bank http://www.alphabank.al/
Uba Bank https://www.uba.com.al/
Veneto Bank https://www.venetobanka.al/
Union Bank https://www.unionbank.al/